1. Properties of a quasicrystal Al-Cu-Fe

• Microstructure, fabrication and properties of quasicrystalline Al–Cu–Fe alloys: a review

Huttunen-Saarivirta E.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 363(1-2), 154–178, 2004.

Quasicrystalline materials constitute a new materials group with certain crystalline structural characteristics, such as the generation of Bragg peaks in the X-ray data and points in the electron diffraction pattern, but translational symmetry is forbidden for crystalline materials. Thus, there exists aperiodicity in the structure of quasicrystalline materials. Besides being theoretically interesting due to their complicated atomic structure, the unique properties of quasicrystalline materials—low electrical and thermal conductivity, unusual optical properties, low surface energy and coefficient of friction, oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and high hardness, to name a few—also make them interesting for many practical purposes. Quasicrystalline phases are today encountered in over 100 alloy systems, of which the majority are aluminium based. Few of the alloying elements used to form aluminium-based quasicrystals are reasonable in price, easily available and non-toxic. However, quasicrystalline Al–Cu–Fe ternary alloys fulfill all these alloying-element criteria. In this paper, the microstructure, fabrication and properties of quasicrystalline Al–Cu–Fe alloys are reviewed from the perspective of materials engineer. The paper discusses the microstructure and metallurgy of quasicrystalline Al–Cu–Fe alloys. The preparation methods of quasicrystals in general and their application to the fabrication of Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline alloys are considered. The characteristics of different production methods, including both conventional methods yielding stable phases and more advanced methods introducing metastable phases, are compared in this paper. The properties of Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystals are also reviewed, aiming at a better understanding of the basic differences between crystalline and quasicrystalline materials with respect to structure and properties. Finally current and possible future applications of Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystals are discussed in the light of their properties.

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2. Use of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal as a friction modifier in lubricants

• Design of quasicrystalline alloys with favorable tribological indicators with regard to microstructural and mechanical properties

Lee K., Chen Y., Dai W., Naugle D., Liang H.
Materials & Design, 193, 108735, 2020.

Quasicrystals are used in various applications to improve wear resistance as well as friction. It is known that the content and microstructure of quasicrystals (i-phase) in alloys have a decisive influence on mechanical properties and tribological characteristics. Higher i-phase content in a quasicrystalline alloy shows favorable tribological properties because of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the prevailing i-phase.

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• To theories of friction and adhesion on quasicrystals

Rabson D. A.
Progress in Surface Science, 87(9-12), 253–271, 2012.

It has long been known that quasicrystalline surfaces exhibit low sliding friction and adhesion, features that have led to practical applications, especially in kitchenware. Several mechanisms have been proposed for how quasi-periodicity can lead to low friction and low adhesion. These include mechanical characteristics (stiffness and hardness), electronic properties, phonon propagation, surface topography on atomic length scales, and relatively irrational distances between atoms of two sliding surfaces (“superlubricity”). Recent work by Park et al. found an eightfold anisotropy of the sliding friction coefficient between the decagonal surface of the quasicrystal and the passivated probe. This giant anisotropy epitomizes the difference between periodicity and aperiodicity in one experiment, but theoretical explanations for the effect remain inconsistent.

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• Test report on the effect of quasi-crystalline powder on the performance of the DoALL C-670 M band saw reducer

EnergoTekhMash LLC.

Determination of the effect of quasicrystalline powder of the Al-Cu-Fe system produced by NANOCOM LLC on the performance characteristics of the equipment of EnergoTekhMash LLC.

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• Investigation of the influence of quasicrystalline Al Cu Fe powder on the operating characteristics of the reducer 1ts2u-160

Inter RAO.

Decision of the working meeting of representatives of BPD PJSC Inter RAO, LLC CCT “Energy without Borders” on the need to confirm the potential economic effect for Inter RAO Group from the introduction of new generation plastic additives to lubricants.

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3. Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals in composites with polymer matrix

• Development of Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystal-Poly( p-phenylene sulfide) Composites

Bloom P. D., Baikerikar K. G., Anderegg J. W., Sheares V. V.
Materials Research Society Proceedings, 643, 2000.

Quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe powders were used as a novel filler material in poly(p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS). These polymer/quasicrystal composites showed useful properties that may be beneficially exploited in applications such as dry bearings and composite gears. Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline filler significantly improved wear resistance to volume loss in polymer-based composites. In addition to improving the composite wear resistance, the Al-Cu-Fe filler showed low abrasion to the 52100 chrome steel counterface. Furthermore, mechanical testing results showed a two-fold increase in the storage modulus of the reinforced composites compared with the polymer samples. In addition, the Al-Cu-Fe filler was compared to its constituent metals, aluminum oxide, and silicon carbide in PPS. Chemical analysis of the wear interface by X-ray spectroscopy indicated the generation of a third body oxide layer during wear. The fabrication in addition to the thermal, mechanical, and wear properties of these unique materials is described.

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• Development of novel polymer/quasicrystal composite materials

Bloom P. D., Baikerikar K.G., Otaigbe J. U.,  Sheares V. V.
Materials Science and Engineering: A, 294-296, 156–159, 2000.

We report on a new class of materials, polymer/quasicrystal composites with useful properties for beneficial exploitation in applications, such as dry bearings and composite gears. Our preliminary results indicate that our new composites are a means of enhancing the properties of certain organic polymers while providing a new means of processing quasicrystals. Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline materials significantly improved wear resistance to volume loss in polymer-based composites. Furthermore, mechanical testing results showed a two-fold increase in the storage modulus of the reinforced composites compared with the polymer samples. The fabrication in addition to the thermal, mechanical, and wear properties of these unique materials will be described.

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• Composite Material Based on Polytetrafluoroethyleneand Al–Cu–Fe Quasi-Crystal Filler with Ultralow Wear:Morphology, Tribological, and Mechanical Properties

Tsetlin M. B., Teplov A. A., Belousov S. I., Chvalun S. N., Golovkova E. A., Krasheninnikov S. V., Golubev E. K., Pichkur E. B., Dmitryakov P. V. , Buzin A. I.
Journal of Surface Investigation: X-Ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 12(2), 277–285, 2018.

Samples of composites with polytetrafluoroethylene as the matrix and a powder of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 vol % Al–Cu–Fe quasi-crystal as the filler are prepared. Electron microscopy studies of the sample structure are carried out, the influence of the filler on the degree of crystallinity and the melting and destruction temperatures of the samples is investigated; mechanical tensile tests and tribological tests are performed. The composite samples with filler contents of 4, 8, 16, and 32 vol % show ultralow wear with the coefficient K < 5 × 10–7 mm3/N m. The highest wear resistance exceeding that of unfilled polytetrafluoroethylene by 2200–3100 times is recorded in composites with 16 vol % filler. An increase in the wear resistance is associated with formation on the friction surface of a thin crust containing quasi-crystal particles 0.2–0.3 μm in size, revealed by scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive analysis.

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• Testing the mechanical and tribological properties of new metal-polymernanocomposite materials based on linear low-density polyethylene and Al65Cu22Fe13 quasicrystals

Uflyand I. E., Drogan E. G., Burlakova V. E., Kydralieva K. A., Shershneva I. N., Dzhardimalieva G. I.
Polymer Testing, 2019.

Metal-polymer nanocomposite materials based on linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and Al65Cu22Fe13 quasicrystals were first obtained by melt-blending. The methods of thermal analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis were used to analyze the thermal stability and physicomechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposite materials. It has been found that increasing the content of nanofillers increases the elastic modulus, but tensile strength also increases, especially at low filler concentrations. Friction and wear were assessed on pinon-disc tester. The results show that the friction coefficient of the sample with 1 wt% content of nanofiller is lower than that of pure LLDPE, and the anti-wear properties of the composite material are increased by 57% compared to pure LLDPE. In addition, during friction with a load of up to 147 N, a protective antifriction film of metallic nanoparticles on the friction surface forms for this sample.

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• Quasicrystalline Metal Powder: A Potential Filler for UHMWPE Composites

Lucas Ricardo Fernandes Figueiredoa, Tibério Andrade Passosa, Angelo Vieira Mendoncab, Lucineide Balbino Silva.
Materials Research, 2022.

The mechanical and thermal behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/metallic quasicrystal powder (MQP) composites are evaluated at filler volume fractions () of 0.01, 0.02, 0.06 and 0.15. MQP is based on an aluminum alloy, synthesized and characterized to act as a filler for UHMWPE. The preparation of the composites was conducted by compression molding. Morphological analysis reveals larger and smaller MPQ particles, being well distributed, and mechanically anchored in the matrix. The melting temperature was maintained after adding filler, while the crystallinity values decreased. When adding MQP, an improvement in thermal stability is observed by increases in both the initial and maximum weight loss rate temperatures (Tmax). However, when the temperature is about 700°C all composites present oxidation due to the MQP presence. The Pukansky model shows that the 0.06 MQP composites have better interfacial adhesion. This is confirmed by the Nicolais-Narkis equation. This contributes to an increase in the modulus of elasticity of the 0.06 MQP composite in respect to the others. The elongation at break was reduced for the 0.15 MQP composite. However, the higher volume fraction of MQP increased the stiffness of the UHMWPE, reflecting its potential for use as a reinforcement.

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4. Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals in metal matrix composites

• Aluminum-based metal matrix composites reinforced with quasicrystalline Al - Cu - Fe particles: hardening by interfacial reaction

Ali F., Scudino S., Anwar M.S., Shahid R.N., Srivastava V.C., Uhlenwinkel V., M. Stoica, Vaughan G., Eckert J.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 607, 274–279, 2014.

The interfacial reaction between Al matrix and quasicrystalline Al62,5Cu25Fe12,5 (QC) reinforcing particles to form ω-phase Al7Cu2Fe was used to further enhance the strength of Al / QC composites. The phase transformation of QC to ω during heating was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction using a high-energy monochromatic synchrotron beam, which allows the evolution of the structure to be traced and compared with the mechanical properties of the composites. The mechanical behavior of these transformation-enhanced composites improves markedly as the phase transformation of QC to ω progresses: the yield strength increases from 195 MPa for an initial material reinforced solely with QC particles to 400 MPa for a material in which the QC-to-ω reaction is complete. The reduction in matrix bond size as a result of an increase in the reinforcing phase volume fraction during the transformation can explain much of the observed increase in strength, while additional hardening can be attributed to the possible presence of nanoscale ω-phase particles. regarding the improved interfacial bond between matrix and particles, caused by compressive stresses occurring in the matrix.

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• Structure, microhardness and damping characteristics of aluminum matrix composite reinforced with Al-Cu-Fe or Ti by ultrasonic impact hardening

Mordyuk B. N., Iefimov M. O., Prokopenko G. I., Golub T. V., Danylenko M. I.
Surface and Coatings Technology, 204(9-10), 1590–1598, 2010.

Ultrasonic impact hardening (UIP) is used to modify the near-surface cp layers of aluminum. The effect of fine powders of icosahedral quasicrystalline (QC) AlCuFe or GPU Ti added to the zone of severe plastic deformation during UIP on the microstructure, phase composition, microhardness of the near-surface layers and the damping properties of aluminum was investigated. The results show that composite layers are formed that are characterized by a relatively uniform distribution of reinforcing particles with a similar volume fraction of about 0.17. While a semi-coherent particle/matrix interface is observed for QC reinforcements, Ti particles appear to strongly adhere to the aluminum matrix due to the formation of the Ti 3.Al layer. While the dislocation cell structure forms only after UIP, the AlCuFe reinforced composite layer exhibits a strongly disoriented fine grain structure with an average grain size of 0.1-0.5 μm, and the Ti reinforced layer has an average grain size of 0.5-2 μm. The observed microstructural features predetermine a significant increase in microhardness and damping properties of aluminum samples in the initial state. Significantly higher values of microhardness (about 1.3 GPa) and logarithmic decrement (about 12 × 10 – 4 ) are observed in aluminum specimens coated with a QC-reinforced composite layer compared to specimens containing a Ti-reinforced layer (about 1 GPa and 3.6 GPa)  × 10- 4 ) and to the aluminum specimen after cladding (0.58 GPa and 1.4 × 10 – 4 ). This is due to (i) the smallest grain size, (ii) the semi-coherent particle/matrix interface, and (iii) the high hardness and specific stiffness of the QC AlCuFe phase. The relatively high microhardness (about 1.1 GPa and 0.8 GPa) and logarithmic decrement (about 5 × 10 – 4 and 2 × 10 – 4 ) are maintained for Al samples coated with QC and Ti reinforced composite layers even after heating to 623 K .

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• Properties and applications of quasicrystals and complexes

Dubois J.-M.
Chemical Society Reviews, 41(20), 6760, 2012.

The potential of using quasicrystals and related compounds, the so-called family of complex metal alloys (CMAsz). Attention is focused on aluminum-based CMAS, which contain a large number of crystalline compounds and quasicrystals made of aluminum doped with transition metals (such as Fe or Cu) or ordinary metals such as Mg. Depending on the composition, the structural complexity varies from a few atoms per unit cell to thousands of atoms. Then the quasicrystals appear as CMA of extreme complexity and exhibit a lattice that no longer shows periodicity in ordinary three-dimensional space. The properties change dramatically with the complexity of the lattice and turn the behavior of simple Al-based crystals into a metallic behavior into a much more complex one, with imprints of semiconductors that can be used in various applications, potential or realized.

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• Recent developments on fabrication of Al-matrix composites reinforced with quasicrystals: From metastable to conventional processing

Witor Wolf, Claudemiro Bolfarini, Claudio S. Kiminami, Walter J. Botta.
Journal of Materials Research, 2020.

Quasicrystalline alloys and their composites have been extensively studied due to their complex atomic structures, mechanical properties, and their unique tribological and thermal behaviors. However, technological applications of these materials have not yet come of age and still require additional developments. In this review, we discuss the recent advances that have been made in the last years toward optimizing fabrication processes and properties of Al-matrix composites reinforced with quasicrystals. We discuss in detail the high-strength rapid-solidified nanoquasicrystalline composites, the challenges involved in their manufacturing processes and their properties. We also bring the latest findings on the fabrication of Al-matrix composites reinforced with quasicrystals by powder metallurgy and by conventional metallurgical processes. We show that substantial developments were made over the last decade and discuss possible future studies that may result from these recent findings.

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• Mechanical properties of Al/ω-Al-Cu-Fe composites synthesized by the SPS technique

Joseph A., Gauthier-Brunet V., Joulain A., Bonneville J., Dubois S., Monchoux J.P.,  Pailloux F.
Materials Characterization, 2018.

Al/40 vol%ω-Al-Cu-Fe composites were produced from Al powder and i-Al-Cu-Fe quasi-crystalline particles using spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated over the temperature range 293 K–823 K by performing compression tests at constant strain rate. The temperature dependence of the σ0,2% yield stress gives evidence of two temperature regimes with a transition in the range 473 K–523 K. The decrease of σ0,2% with increasing temperature, more pronounced in the low temperature regime, indicates that the two temperature regimes correspond to two different thermally activated deformation mechanisms. Based on microstructural analyses of the Al matrix, where plastic deformation takes place, the different strengthening contributions are discussed and the results are finally compared to those obtained for composites produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), for which the σ0,2% temperature dependence is similar. In the low temperature regime, the σ0.2% stress of the SPS composites is higher than that of the HIP composites. In this temperature regime, the stress difference is mainly ascribed to the different reinforcement phases present in the Al matrix. In the high temperature regime, the temperature dependence of σ 0.2% is comparable for the two composites whatever the processing route: load transfer is thus the main strengthening mechanism, which is similar for the two Al/ω-Al-Cu-Fe composites, the temperature dependence being ascribed to cross slip and climb processes.

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• Characterization of aluminium matrix composites reinforced by Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline particles

Lityńska-Dobrzyńska L., Dutkiewicz J., Stan-Głowińska K., Wajda W., Dembinski L., Langlad, C., Coddet C.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 643, S114–S118, 2015.

Aluminium matrix composites were consolidated from elemental Al powder and atomised Al65Cu20Fe15 particles by vacuum hot pressing technique. The spherical Al65Cu20Fe15 particles consisted of icosahedral quasicrystalline dendrites or cells and cubic τ-AlCu(Fe) phase located in interdendritic areas. The composites with different content of the reinforcement particles (20, 40 and 60 wt%) were prepared. All composites showed density about 99% and a good bonding between the Al65Cu20Fe15 particles and the matrix. It was shown that the phase composition of the atomised particles did not change after consolidation for the composite containing 20% and 40% added particles while Al2Cu precipitates formed at the Al/Al65Cu20Fe15 interfaces and inside the matrix in the composite with 60% of Al65Cu20Fe15 particles. With the increase of the volume fraction of the reinforcement in the composite the hardness as well as compressive strength increased reaching the value of 173 HV0.5 and 370 MPa, respectively for 60% of Al65Cu20Fe15 particles. The friction coefficient slightly varied in the range 0.5–0.7 depending on the composition.

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5. Quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe coating

• Wear resistance and fracture behavior of thermally sprayedAl-based quasicrystalline composite coatings

Meng Xiao, Zhaoguo Qiu, Yaosha Wu, Dechang Zeng.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021.

Tailoring coating microstructure and the fraction of quasicrystalline phase for enhancing the wear and crack resistance by selecting the appropriate thermal spraying parameters was investigated. To simplify the optimization process, orthogonal test was introduced. According to the statistical analysis and validation experiments, the orders of spraying-parameters that affected the hardness and fraction of quasicrystalline phase were
proposed, respectively. The wear resistance and fracture behaviors of coating sprayed with optimal processing parameters were analyzed by pin-on-disk and three-point bending (3PB) tests. The current results indicated that the coating sprayed with optimal parameters exhibit a better wear and crack resistance. The high fraction of quasicrystal phase and dense microstructure contribute to the good wear resistance, meanwhile, the favorable fracture toughness is attributed to the tough phase existing in quasicrystal matrix and a fine-lamellar microstructure which facilitates the stress release during the crack propagation. This study gives insight into the crack propagation behavior in Al-based quasicrystal coating from nano-scale to micro-scale and might provide a viable guideline for the improvement of wear and crack resistance for thermal spraying quasicrystal composite coatings.

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6. Using a quasicrystal Al-Cu-Fe as a solar energy absorber

• A Thermoelectric Energy Harvester Based on MicrostructuredQuasicrystalline Solar Absorber

Silva Oliveira V., Camboim M. M., Protasio de Souza C., Silva Guedes de Lima B. A., Baiocchi O.,  Kim H.-S.
Micromachines, 12(4), 393, 2021.

As solar radiation is the most plentiful energy source on earth, thermoelectric energy harvesting emerges as an interesting solution for the Internet of Things (IoTs) in outdoor applications, particularly using semiconductor thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to power IoT devices. However, when a TEG is under solar radiation, the temperature gradient through TEG is minor, meaning that the TEG is useless. A method to keep a significant temperature gradient on a TEG is by using a solar absorber on one side for heating and a heat sink on the other side. In this paper, a compact TEG-based energy harvester that features a solar absorber based on a new class of solid matter, the so-called quasicrystal (QC), is presented. In addition, a water-cooled heat sink to improve the temperature gradient on the TEG is also proposed. The harvester is connected to a power management circuit that can provide an output voltage of 3 V and store up to 1.38 J in a supercapacitor per day. An experimental evaluation was carried out to compare the performance of the proposed QC-based harvester with another similar harvester but with a solar absorber based on conventional black paint. As a result, the QC-based harvester achieved 28.6% more efficient energy generation and achieved full charge of a supercapacitor around two hours earlier. At last, a study on how much the harvested energy can supply power to a sensor node for Smart agriculture during a day while considering a trade-off between the maximum number of measurements and the maximum number of transmission per day is presented.

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• Light harvesting enhancement in solar cells withquasicrystalline plasmonic structures

Bauer C.,  Giessen H.
Optics Express, 21(S3), A363, 2013.

Solar cells are important in the area of renewable energies. Since it is expensive to produce solar-grade silicon [Electrochem. Soc. Interface 17, 30 (2008)], especially thin-film solar cells are interesting. However, the efficiency of such solar cells is low. Therefore, it is important to increase the efficiency. The group of Polman has shown that a periodic arrangement of metal particles is able to enhance the absorbance of light [Nano Lett. 11, 1760 (2011)]. However, a quasicrystalline arrangement of the metal particles is expected to enhance the light absorbance independent of the incident polar and azimuthal angles due to the more isotropic photonic bandstructure. In this paper, we compare the absorption enhancement of a quasiperiodic photonic crystal to that of a periodic photonic crystal. We indeed find that the absorption enhancement for the quasicrystalline arrangement shows such an isotropic behavior. This implies that the absorption efficiency of the solar cell is relatively constant during the course of the day as well as the year. This is particularly important with respect to power distribution, power storage requirements, and the stability of the electric grid upon massive use of renewable energy.

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7. Application of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal as a catalyst for hydrogen production

• Mixed Cu - Fe - Al - O spinel oxides as oxygen carriers for chemical cycling of hydrogen formation

Cui D., Qiu Y., Li M., Ma L., Zhang S., Zeng D., Xiao R.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 45(21), 11908–11915, 2020.

The level of reduction for the metal oxide carrier determines the final hydrogen yield for the chemical cycle hydrogen generation process. However, when the carrier oxygen content is reduced to a high level, sintering of the materials will be accelerated. In this paper, we prepare the spinel material Cu0·2 Fe 0·8 (FeAl) O x and investigate its hydrogen production characteristics. The results show that it exhibits good redox stability even at a reduction level of 0.75 for 20 cycles. In contrast, deactivation of the oxygen carrier Fe2O3 can obviously be observed in the first few cycles. This allows the material with stable hydrogen formation with a high yield of about 7 mmol/g, which is 3.5 times higher than that of Fe2O3. Using SEM and XRD techniques, we found that the reason for both the good stability and the high hydrogen yield is the ability of the spinel carrier to inhibit sintering of the active Cu and Fe compositions.

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• Curious Catalytic Characteristics of Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystal forDe/Rehydrogenation of MgH2

Pandey S. K., Bhatnagar A., Mishra S. S., Yadav T. P., Shaz M. A., Srivastava O. N.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 121(45), 24936–24944, 2017.

The present study reports the curious catalytic action of a new class of catalyst; quasicrystal of Al65Cu20Fe15 on de/rehydrogenation properties of magnesium hydride (MgH2). Catalyzed through this catalyst, the onset desorption temperature of MgH2 gets reduced significantly from ~345˚C (for ball milled MgH2) to ~215˚C. More dramatic effect of the above catalyst has been observed on rehydrogenation. Here, 6.00 wt.% of hydrogen storage capacity is observed in just 30 seconds at 250˚C. Improved rehydrogenation kinetics has been found even at lower temperatures of 200 & 150˚C by absorbing ~ 5.50 and ~ 5.40 wt.% of H2 respectively, within one minute and ~5.00 wt.% at 100˚C in 30 minutes. These are one of the lowest desorption temperature and the rehydrogenation kinetics obtained for MgH2 through any other known catalyst. The storage capacity of MgH2 catalyzed with leached version of Al65Cu20Fe15 quasicrystalline alloy degrades negligibly even after 51 cycles of de/rehydrogenation. The feasible reason for catalytic action has been described and discussed based on structural, microstructural, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies.

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• Use Alloy Quasicrystalline Al62,2Cu25,3Fe12, 5 for Steam Reforming of Methanol

Jamshidi ALCL, Nascimento L, Rodbari RJ, Barbosa GF, Machado FLA, Pacheco JGA, Barbosa CMBM.
Jamshidi et al., J Chem Eng Process Technol, 2014

This study shows the good performance of quasicrystal Al62,2Cu25,3Fe12,5 as catalyst in catalytic reactions. The metal catalyst without being leached with acid or base with the stoichiometric composition of dry Al62,2Cu25,3Fe12,5 among the reactions shown to be a partial oxidation occurred , which formation of the products was methanol , methanal + methanoic acid, water and dimethyl ether. For this research used experimental techniques as X-Ray Diffraction-XRD to follow the evolution of the alloy phase, the Scanning Electron Microscopy-SEM allowing the study of surface microstructure, and Transmission Electron Microscopy-TEM studies the morphology of internal phase, and defects quasicrystalline nuclei; tests for the catalytic conversion of methanol and selectivity and products formed from this material used as catalyst. The activity and stability of catalyst quasicrystal for steam reforming of methanol showed sufficient performance compared to other catalysts. The Fe and Cu species highly dispersed in the homogeneous layer quasicrystal catalyst increases the catalytic activity and suppresses the aggregation of Cu particles. We propose that the quasicrystal can be a good catalyst to be used in catalytic steam reforming, with high catalytic activity and excellent thermal stability.

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• Evolution of the porous structure on the quasicrystalline surface of Al-Cu-Fe alloy and its catalytic activity

Mishra S. S., Yadav T. P., Singh S. P., Singh A. K., Shaz M. A., Mukhopadhyay N. K., Srivastava, O. N.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 155162, 2020.

In the present study, the selective removal of Al from the quasicrystalline lattice nodes on the surface of the quasicrystalline alloy was studied to produce metal nanoparticles / metal oxides within the microporous mesh. X-ray structural analysis was performed to characterize the samples. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were performed to investigate the surface microstructure, internal morphology and chemical composition. In addition, the catalytic activity of the leached quasicrystalline materials was evaluated with respect to the degradation of non-biodegradable and hazardous methylene blue (an organic dye).

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• Microstructure of leached Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal with high catalytic performance for methanol steam reforming

Tanabe T., Kameoka S.,  Tsai A. P.
Applied Catalysis A: General, 384(1-2), 241–251, 2010.

Steam reformed methanol (SRM) catalytic performance, cross-sectional microstructure and leached Al63Cu25Fe12 quasicrystal (QC) catalyst process. The QC catalyst was obtained by NaOH leaching. Leaching of the QC alloy resulted in a homogeneous leached layer consisting of Cu, Fe, Al, and their oxides. The activity and stability of QC catalyst for SRM was much higher than that of related crystalline alloy catalysts because the highly dispersed Fe particles in the homogeneous leached bed of QC catalyst enhance the catalytic activity and inhibit the aggregation of Cu particles. The quasiperiodic QC Al-Cu-Fe structure was resistant to leaching and had relatively low Al dissolution rate among Al-Cu-Fe alloys, resulting in a homogeneous leached layer, which was responsible for high activity and stability for SRM.

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• Quasi-crystalline catalyst for steam reforming of methanol

Phung Ngoca B., Geanteta C., Aouinea M., Bergereta G., Raffyb S., Marlinb S.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(3), 1000–1007, 2008.

Two alloys composed of Al59Cu25.5Fe12.4B3 and Al71Cu9.7Fe8.7Cr10.6 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The latter forms a mixture of an imperfect icosahedral phase and a cubic phase during rapid solidification from the liquid state. After heat treatment, this alloy transitions to a decagonal quasicrystalline phase. Both alloys can be used as catalyst precursors and transform into active metal phases after alkaline leaching with NaOH solution. These catalysts were used to produce hydrogen by steam reforming of methanol at temperatures from 473 to 773 K. The catalytic activity of these treated alloys was compared with the catalytic activity of the reference Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. The quasicrystal-based catalysts showed high catalytic activity with respect to hydrogen production.

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8. Application of the quasicrystal of the Al-Cu-Fe system in additive technologies

• Quasicrystal–polymer composites for selective laser sintering technology (SLS)

Kenzari S., Bonina D., Dubois J. M.,  Fournée V.
Materials and Design, 35, 691–695, 2012.

Selective laser sintering (SLS) process is a layered manufacturing technique used for building functional parts from 3D computer-aided design. Materials compatible with SLS usually consist of polymer-based composites reinforced by metal or ceramic particles. We have investigated a new composite powder compatible with the SLS technology and containing AlCuFeB quasicrystalline filler particles. The processed parts show reduced friction and improved wear resistance compared to other composites used in SLS technology. In addition, the functional parts contain almost no porosity and are leak-tight allowing their direct use in many fluidic applications.

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• Quasicrystal-Polymer Compositesfor Additive Manufacturing Technology

Kenzari S., Bonina D., Degiovanni A., Dubois J. M., Fournée V.
Acta Physica Polonica A, 126(2), 449–452, 2014.

Application of quasicrystalline powders in the development of polymer matrix composites. The process is based on selective laser sintering, which is one of the most effective additive manufacturing technologies used in mechanical engineering. The characteristics of the materials produced, such as porosity, friction and wear in relation to solid steel, are evaluated and compared with the state of the art. It also gives an idea of the production of metal-matrix composites using one of the variants of the technology.

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9. The use of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal in bioengineering as an antimicrobial material and a chlorella growth bioactivator

• Chlorella growth bioactivator based on quasicrystals of the Al-Cu-Fe system

Abuzin Y.A., Tsetlin M.B., Mansurov I.R.
RU2590694C1, 2015.

The group of inventions relates to biochemistry. A bioactivator, a method for increasing the efficiency of growing chlorella, and a web of bioactivator for growing chlorella are proposed. The bioactivator is a quasi-crystalline material of the Al-Cu-Fe system. The method includes placing the above bioactivator in the chlorella incubation medium in the form of a powder of 20-60 microns in the amount of 5-10% of the bioreactor volume or in the form of a thin layer up to 5 microns thick on the functional surfaces of the bioreactor. The bioactivator web for growing chlorella is formed from sections of filament covered with one end on a suspension covered with a layer of bioactivator up to 5 μm thick. The inventions increase the biological mass of the strain-producer. 3 n. and 6 h.p. f., 4 il.

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• Antimicrobial behavior of leached Al–Cu–Fe-based quasicrystals

Aqib Zahoor, Taha Aziz, Soumble Zulfqar, Aisha Sadiq, Rashid Ali, Rub Nawaz Shahid, Naeem ul Haq Tariq, Attaullah Shah, Khurram Shehzad, Fahad Ali, Hasan Bin Awais.
Applied Physics A, 126(6), 2020.

In this study, for the first time, antimicrobial properties of Al–Cu–Fe, Al–Cu–Fe–B and Al–Cu–Fe–Co quasicrystal powders were investigated in the leached and un-leached condition against Gram-negative (E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae) and Gram-positive (B. cereus, K. rosea) bacterial environment. Leaching of the powders in 10 M NaOH aqueous solution resulted in the enrichment of Cu and Fe at the surface. Consequently, bacterial activities in the vicinity of the leached quasicrystal powders were inhibited, indicating good antimicrobial characteristics of the leached powders. All the three leached powder samples exhibited antimicrobial activities with a varying degree. From the diameter of inhibition zone, it was deduced that E. aerogenes are the most susceptible against the leached powders. The leached Al–Cu–Fe–B and Al–Cu–Fe–Co quasicrystal powders showed nanostructured features on the outer surface. During leaching, the icosahedral structure was retained in all the samples.
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11. Application of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal in Li-ion batteries

• Lithium properties of quasicrystalline graphite / AlCuFe composites

Wang H., Lan X., Huang Y.,  Jiang X.
Chinese Physics Letters, 36(9), 098201, 2019.

Quasicrystals possess long-range quasiperiodic translational ordering and non-crystallographic rotational symmetry. Al – Cu – Fe quasicrystals have great potential for lithium storage because of the high Al content and the large number of defects in the structure. In our study (J. Alloys Compd. 805 (2019) 942) we showed that Al – Cu – Fe quasicrystals have good initial storage capacity.

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• Al - Cu - Fe quasicrystals as anode for lithium-ion batteries

Lan, X., Wang, H., Sun, Z., & Jiang, X.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019.

In this paper, a quasicrystal Al – Cu – Fe alloy was used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The first specific discharge capacity of the quasicrystal was 204 mA h / g. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the oxidation peak of the Al – Cu – Fe quasicrystal was about 1.4 V. The reduction peak was at 0.3 V. Al – Cu – Fe quasicrystals had a higher lithium ion diffusion impedance and Warburg impedance in the first case. cycle. X-ray analysis showed that Li atoms enter the quasicrystal structure and cannot completely leave the quasicrystal during the first charge-discharge cycle, causing irreversible capacitance.

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12. Effect of the Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal on the properties of magnets

• Effect of quasicrystals on the properties of Nb-Fe-B magnets

Abuzin Y.A., Piskorskiy V.P., Valeev R.A., Tereshina I.S., Klevachev A.M., Shcheglova T.M.
Promising materials, ISSN 1028-978X, 2008.

It is shown that the addition of nanostructured Al7Cu2Fe powder to the base alloy of the Nb-Fe-B system can increase the HCI value of metal-ceramic magnets by 32% with a slight decrease in its residual induction. It is shown that the positive effect of the quasicrystalline Al7Cu2Fe powder on the properties of metal-ceramic magnets depends strongly enough on the sintering temperature since the decomposition of the Al7Cu2Fe compound is possible in the sintering process.

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• The influence of quasicrystals on the properties of sintered ND-FE-B, PR-DY-FE-CO-B magnets produced by binary technology

Piskorskiy V.P., Ivanov S.I., Valeev R.A., Shingarev E.N., Shcheglova T.M., Elebov A.V., Parfenov A.A.
Integral, ISSN 2074-0077, 2012.

The influence of quasicrystal Al7Cu2Fe powder on the properties of sintered magnets Nd-Fe-B, Pr-Dy-Fe-Co-B was investigated. Al7Cu2Fe compound powder was added in milling (up to 2 wt%) to base alloy powders of the following compositions: Nd 15,3(Fe 0,98Co 0,02)Ti 1,4Cu 0,6Al 0,27,5 (Б2), (Pr 0,57Dy 0,4313,4(Fe 0,7 6Cо 0,24ост.Cu 0,06Al 0,17,2 (Б). The dependence of the HCI of the magnets based on the B2 alloy on the concentration of Al7Cu2Fe has a maximum at the additive content of 0.5 wt.%. The value of HCI of the magnets based on alloy B does not depend on the concentration of the additive. It is assumed that the different nature of the dependence of HCI on the amount of additive is related to the different composition of the liquid phase during sintering.

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